HP-UX combines leading edge technologies into a standard based, end-to-end capability that spans the entire Internet service spectrum from the initial naming and addressing, through connection and routing and into file, terminal, and messaging services. To address increasing bandwidth needs of businesses, HP-UX IPQoS provides IETF DiffServ-compliant network quality of service controls for IP-based network communications.
Naming and addressing
The Domain Name System (DNS) is used mostly to translate between domain names and IP addresses, and to assist Internet email delivery. Most Internet services rely on DNS to work, and if DNS fails, web sites cannot be located and email delivery stalls. Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) is an implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols and BIND, which is used on the majority of name servers on the Internet.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an extension of BOOTP that defines a protocol for passing configuration information, such as IP address, to hosts on a network. HP-UX 11i supports DHCP for both IPv4 and IPv6 networks. The current operating system releases support DHCP in an IPv4 and IPv6 environments. The latest release of DHCPv6 is available as a web release from the software depot.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) automatically allocates re-usable IPv6 addresses and reduces the cost of managing IPv6 nodes in environments where administrators need more control over the allocation of IPv6 addresses. DHCPv6 manages network resources, such as IP addresses and server addresses like Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Domain Name System (DNS), Network Information Service (NIS), and Network Information Service Plus (NIS+), at a centralised location.
Point-to-point Protocol (PPP):
The point-to-point protocol provides a method for transmitting multi-protocol datagrams, including TCP/IP packets, over serial and other point-to-point links. PPP consists of three components:
- A method for encapsulation of multi-protocol datagrams.
- A link control protocol for establishing, configuring and testing the data link connection.
- A family of network control protocols for establishing, and configuring different network layer protocols.
- PPP on HP-UX 11i includes a command program and a number of sample configuration files.
You can use PPP to:
- Dial-in to HP-UX 11i systems across serial lines.
- Dial-out from HP-UX 11i systems over serial lines.
- Directly connect to HP-UX 11i systems using serial links.
PPPoE provides the ability to connect multiple hosts at a remote site in a manner similar to dial-up services using PPP. Each host utilises its own PPP stack and the user is presented with a familiar "dial-up networking" user interface. Access control, billing and type of service can be controlled on a per-user, rather than a per-site basis. This helps avoid permanent connections and over-subscribing of the IP address pool. By combining the most cost effective LAN technology―Ethernet―with the demonstrated scalability and administrative controls of PPP, ISPs and carriers are presented with a new approach to faster deployment of high-speed Internet services with proven and familiar technologies.
The PPPoE software on HP-UX 11i conforms to RFC-2516, "A Method for Transmitting PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)". It consists of a client "pppoec", a server "pppoesd", a relay "pppoerd", and a multiplexer device "/dev/pppoe". The configuration files for the client server and relay are in /etc/ppp directory with names pppoec.conf, pppoesd.conf and pppoerd.conf; respectively.
PPPv6 enables serial links communication in an IPv6 infrastructure. IPv6CP is a network control protocol for establishing and configuring Internet Protocol version-6 over PPP. It specifies a mechanism for forming the link local address of the PPP peers. IPv6CP uses the same packet exchange mechanism as the Link Control Protocol (LCP). IPv6CP packets may not be exchanged until PPP has reached the Network-Layer Protocol phase. IPv6CP negotiates the IPv6 interface identifier while NCP becomes functional.
The existing PPP software on HP-UX 11i has been enhanced to support IPv6. A few new command-line options have been added for IPv6CP support as part of the enhancement.
The PPPv6 software on HP-UX 11i conforms to RFC-2472, "IP version 6 over PPP"
HP-UX 11i offers a set of Routing Protocols that enable routing capabilities in networking infrastructures. The HP-UX 11i Route Administration Manager daemon (ramD) is now available for download at the software depot (http://software.hp.com). HP-UX 11i ramD is the IPv6 dynamic routing package which ties together disparate, autonomous IPv6 networks. The package can be downloaded onto systems running HP-UX 11i .
The ramD product contains the following routing protocols:
- RIPng: Route Information Protocol Next Generation (RIPng) functionality that evaluates multiple routes to a specified destination in an IPv6 network and selects the optimal route to reach the destination. The optimal route is then stored in the HP-UX 11i kernel routing table for instant access. RIPng is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) that uses a distance-vector algorithm to select routes based upon the lowest cost or metric for a given path. Up to 30,000 IPv6 routes can be supported at one time.
- BGP: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which supports IPv6, is an inter-autonomous system protocol. BGP transmits routing information across autonomous systems.
- IS-IS: Intermediate-system to Intermediate-system (IS-IS) for IPv6 domains is a routing protocol defined for Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) traffic.
This routing functionality communicates with similar functionality on other routers or systems to obtain and exchange information for either particular routes or the complete routing table. The functionality in the ramD daemon conforms to the IETF, which allows HP-UX 11i ramD to inter-operate with non-HP router implementations.
Included in the HP-UX 11i ramD package are the user-friendly command-line utilities ram_monitor and rdc, that assist the network administrator in monitoring and managing the ramD product. The ram_monitor utility allows the administrator to look at detailed information on I/O statistics, error logs, routing table, configured network interfaces, and configured filter policies. The rdc utility allows the administrator to perform administrative functions such as starting, re-starting or stopping ramD, reconfiguring ramD, checking the configuration file for errors, and retrieving the HP-UX 11i kernel network interface table.
The ramD product is free of charge, and fully supported to customers with HP-UX 11i Support Agreements.
File, terminal, and messaging services
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): File Transfer Protocol provides a simple but useful service for exchanging files between systems. HP-UX 11i provides the FTP service over both IPv4 and IPv6 networks and is based upon the popular WU-FTP implementation.
- Telnet: Telnet provides a basic terminal service widely used for the remote access of systems. HP-UX 11i provides the Telnet service over both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
- Sendmail: Sendmail is an electronic mail transfer agent that can be used to send or receive message. HP-UX 11i provides the Sendmail service over both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
Sendmail contains the following salient features:
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol):
- Support for secured mail transaction using STARTTLS.
- Enhanced security, as Sendmail 8.13.3 now runs as a set-gid program.
- Support for Mail Filter (MILTER) APIs for advanced and effective mail filtering.
- Message Quarantining
- Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) enhancements to support recursion and LDAP URL support
- Performance Features
SIP is an application layer signalling protocol, developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), that enables the creation, modification, and termination of sessions that are independent of the underlying transport protocols and session type being established.
Like HTTP, SIP is a client-server protocol, in which requests are issued by the clients and responses are managed by the servers. Clients and servers exchange messages that contain the information required for establishing a session.
Access control: TCP wrappers
TCP Wrapper provides enhanced security for services under the control of the internet services daemon inetd. TCP Wrapper uses access control files to determine if users can gain access to certain services.
Naming and addressing
- Offload technology: TCP Segmentation Offload (TSO): TSO is an enhancement to ethernet drivers for reducing CPU utilisation on the system during data transmission, thus boosting overall application performance. It is particularly suited for traffic involving the transfer of large amounts of data, as in storage area networks. TSO is available on TOUR 2.0.
- Network Server Accelerator: The HP-UX 11i Network Server Accelerator for HTTP (NSA HTTP) is a networking feature that improves Web server performance by maintaining an in-kernel cache of recently accessed Web pages.
DHCPv6 conforms to the following IETF standards:
- RFC 3315 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6))
- RFC 3646 (DNS Configuration options for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6))
- RFC 3319 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv6) Options for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Servers)
- RFC 3736 (Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Service for IPv6)