HP-UX 11i Internet and networking solutions

 
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An edge over the competition

HP-UX 11i Internet and networking
Networking is more strategic than ever in today’s enterprises: improving productivity, enhancing business processes, extending and optimising value chains. Equipped with the most sophisticated networking technologies and products, HP-UX 11i enables you to fully exploit the business value of the network and gives you an edge over the competition.

Core competence

At the core of HP-UX 11i networking is a versatile implementation of the TCP/IP stack, capable of simultaneous support for both version 4 and version 6 of the IP protocol. Built around that core, leveraging extensive experience with trend-setting customers, are networking products in the areas of mobility, multimedia, Internet, and web services.
  • Reliability. With industry leading security technology and integrated fault detection, correction and recovery capabilities, the core provides reliable and trustworthy network communications and services.
  • Adaptability. With intelligent automatic configuration, dynamic optimisation and self-tuning capabilities, it gracefully adapts to different networking conditions from noisy low bandwidth wireless environments to high bandwidth high throughput datacenter environments.
  • Scalability. Designed for scalability, it can gracefully scale up from 1 processor to 256 processors, from megabytes to gigabytes of memory, from 10 Base T to 10 Gigabit Ethernet from the classic IPv4 to the next generation IPv6.
  • Performance. Based on a deep understanding of system performance and implemented with an exceptional level of precision, a suite of kernel optimisations enables HP-UX 11i to achieve the best SPECweb and SPECwebSSL results in the industry with a score of 23000 and 9060 respectively. (July 2004)

How it works

HP-UX 11i Web Server Suite
With HP's Web serving products, Internet and intranet web sites operate in high performance and reliability with complete end-to-end Secure Socket Layer (SSL). With these capabilities, you can deliver dynamic content to the web site or keep your secured e-Commerce store always open for e-Business. The Suite consists of all software products necessary to deploy, manage, and implement mission critical web servers.
Network Server Accelerator
The HP-UX 11i Network Server Accelerator for HTTP (NSA HTTP) is a networking feature that improves Web server performance by maintaining an in-kernel cache of recently accessed Web pages.
SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol)
SCTP is a transport protocol that facilitates reliable transmission of data between two endpoints of an association in an Internet Protocol (IP)-based network. In an IP stack, it exists at a level equivalent to that of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

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Web Server Suite Information

A collection of the most popular and up-to-date set of Internet and security services and tools.

HP-UX Internet Express:
  • Delivers Web and Internet services
  • Provides security functionality

What's new

HP-UX Internet Express is a collection of popular open source Internet Services Web Services, and Security Services that are tested and qualified on HP-UX11i.

Business benefits

HP-UX Internet Express is a collection of popular open source software products.

The HP-UX 11i Internet Express software package consists of the most recognized security products, mail servers, news and chat servers, and a variety of tools for providing dynamic Web content.

  • Components are tested and qualified for HP-UX 11i
  • Ready-to-use binary distribution lowers the cost of open source application deployment
  • Easy installation, configuration, and management

Technology advantages

Features of HP-UX 11i Internet Express include:
  • No software acquisition cost
  • Easy installation, configuration, and management of open source software
  • Scalable, centrally managed, distributed user authentication across the enterprise via LDAP provided by OpenLDAP Directory Server
  • Support for IPv6 networking in several components including: Curl, CyrusIMAP, Wireshark, Globus, Net-SNMP, OpenLDAP, Stunnel, Tcpdump, and Xinetd
  • Choice of IMAP servers (Cyrus IMAP Server by Carnegie Mellon University and University of Washington IMAP Server)
  • Documentation provided
  • Email address for installation and other questions related to HP-UX 11i Internet Express

How it works

HP-UX 11i Internet Express is a collection of the most popular up-to-date Internet and security services and tools, combined with an Open Source graphical administration utility for ease of installation, configuration and management. Internet Express ships as optional open source software as part of the OE/AR media kit. The Open Source components in the Internet Express suite are certified for HP-UX 11i supported HP 9000 and Integrity systems and supported by the open source community.

HP-UX 11i Internet Express components can be installed using installation commands in the shell prompt or via the graphical user interface provided for installing software packages on HP-UX. These components become available for use when the installation is complete. Following the installation, some of the HP-UX 11i Internet Express components can be configured using the HP-UX 11i Webmin-based administration utility.

At a Glance

Internet Express ships as part of the core functionality with every release of HP-UX 11i for both HP 9000 and Integrity servers. HP-UX Internet Express is included in every HP-UX 11i OE media kit and also available for download.

Internet Express for HP-UX 11i v1 is available as version A.10.00 in the OE/AR media kit 0803. This is the last release for HP-UX 11i v1 and no new versions are available as a Software Depot download.

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Internet Services

HP-UX combines leading edge technologies into a standard based, end-to-end capability that spans the entire Internet service spectrum from the initial naming and addressing, through connection and routing and into file, terminal, and messaging services. To address increasing bandwidth needs of businesses, HP-UX IPQoS provides IETF DiffServ-compliant network quality of service controls for IP-based network communications.

How it works

Naming and addressing
DNS/BIND: The Domain Name System (DNS) is used mostly to translate between domain names and IP addresses, and to assist Internet email delivery. Most Internet services rely on DNS to work, and if DNS fails, web sites cannot be located and email delivery stalls. Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) is an implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols and BIND, which is used on the majority of name servers on the Internet.
DHCPv4, DHCPv6: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an extension of BOOTP that defines a protocol for passing configuration information, such as IP address, to hosts on a network. HP-UX 11i supports DHCP for both IPv4 and IPv6 networks. The current operating system releases support DHCP in an IPv4 and IPv6 environments. The latest release of DHCPv6 is available as a web release from the software depot.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) automatically allocates re-usable IPv6 addresses and reduces the cost of managing IPv6 nodes in environments where administrators need more control over the allocation of IPv6 addresses. DHCPv6 manages network resources, such as IP addresses and server addresses like Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Domain Name System (DNS), Network Information Service (NIS), and Network Information Service Plus (NIS+), at a centralised location.
Connection services
Point-to-point Protocol (PPP): The point-to-point protocol provides a method for transmitting multi-protocol datagrams, including TCP/IP packets, over serial and other point-to-point links. PPP consists of three components:
  • A method for encapsulation of multi-protocol datagrams.
  • A link control protocol for establishing, configuring and testing the data link connection.
  • A family of network control protocols for establishing, and configuring different network layer protocols.
  • PPP on HP-UX 11i includes a command program and a number of sample configuration files.
You can use PPP to:
  • Dial-in to HP-UX 11i systems across serial lines.
  • Dial-out from HP-UX 11i systems over serial lines.
  • Directly connect to HP-UX 11i systems using serial links.
PPPoE: PPPoE provides the ability to connect multiple hosts at a remote site in a manner similar to dial-up services using PPP. Each host utilises its own PPP stack and the user is presented with a familiar "dial-up networking" user interface. Access control, billing and type of service can be controlled on a per-user, rather than a per-site basis. This helps avoid permanent connections and over-subscribing of the IP address pool. By combining the most cost effective LAN technology―Ethernet―with the demonstrated scalability and administrative controls of PPP, ISPs and carriers are presented with a new approach to faster deployment of high-speed Internet services with proven and familiar technologies.
The PPPoE software on HP-UX 11i conforms to RFC-2516, "A Method for Transmitting PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)". It consists of a client "pppoec", a server "pppoesd", a relay "pppoerd", and a multiplexer device "/dev/pppoe". The configuration files for the client server and relay are in /etc/ppp directory with names pppoec.conf, pppoesd.conf and pppoerd.conf; respectively.
PPPv6: PPPv6 enables serial links communication in an IPv6 infrastructure. IPv6CP is a network control protocol for establishing and configuring Internet Protocol version-6 over PPP. It specifies a mechanism for forming the link local address of the PPP peers. IPv6CP uses the same packet exchange mechanism as the Link Control Protocol (LCP). IPv6CP packets may not be exchanged until PPP has reached the Network-Layer Protocol phase. IPv6CP negotiates the IPv6 interface identifier while NCP becomes functional.
The existing PPP software on HP-UX 11i has been enhanced to support IPv6. A few new command-line options have been added for IPv6CP support as part of the enhancement.
The PPPv6 software on HP-UX 11i conforms to RFC-2472, "IP version 6 over PPP"
Routing
HP-UX 11i offers a set of Routing Protocols that enable routing capabilities in networking infrastructures. The HP-UX 11i Route Administration Manager daemon (ramD) is now available for download at the software depot (http://software.hp.com). HP-UX 11i ramD is the IPv6 dynamic routing package which ties together disparate, autonomous IPv6 networks. The package can be downloaded onto systems running HP-UX 11i .
The ramD product contains the following routing protocols:
  • RIPng: Route Information Protocol Next Generation (RIPng) functionality that evaluates multiple routes to a specified destination in an IPv6 network and selects the optimal route to reach the destination. The optimal route is then stored in the HP-UX 11i kernel routing table for instant access. RIPng is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) that uses a distance-vector algorithm to select routes based upon the lowest cost or metric for a given path. Up to 30,000 IPv6 routes can be supported at one time.
  • BGP: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which supports IPv6, is an inter-autonomous system protocol. BGP transmits routing information across autonomous systems.
  • IS-IS: Intermediate-system to Intermediate-system (IS-IS) for IPv6 domains is a routing protocol defined for Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) traffic.
This routing functionality communicates with similar functionality on other routers or systems to obtain and exchange information for either particular routes or the complete routing table. The functionality in the ramD daemon conforms to the IETF, which allows HP-UX 11i ramD to inter-operate with non-HP router implementations.
Included in the HP-UX 11i ramD package are the user-friendly command-line utilities ram_monitor and rdc, that assist the network administrator in monitoring and managing the ramD product. The ram_monitor utility allows the administrator to look at detailed information on I/O statistics, error logs, routing table, configured network interfaces, and configured filter policies. The rdc utility allows the administrator to perform administrative functions such as starting, re-starting or stopping ramD, reconfiguring ramD, checking the configuration file for errors, and retrieving the HP-UX 11i kernel network interface table.
The ramD product is free of charge, and fully supported to customers with HP-UX 11i Support Agreements.
File, terminal, and messaging services
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): File Transfer Protocol provides a simple but useful service for exchanging files between systems. HP-UX 11i provides the FTP service over both IPv4 and IPv6 networks and is based upon the popular WU-FTP implementation.
  • Telnet: Telnet provides a basic terminal service widely used for the remote access of systems. HP-UX 11i provides the Telnet service over both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
  • Sendmail: Sendmail is an electronic mail transfer agent that can be used to send or receive message. HP-UX 11i provides the Sendmail service over both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
Sendmail contains the following salient features:
  • Support for secured mail transaction using STARTTLS.
  • Enhanced security, as Sendmail 8.13.3 now runs as a set-gid program.
  • Support for Mail Filter (MILTER) APIs for advanced and effective mail filtering.
  • Message Quarantining
  • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) enhancements to support recursion and LDAP URL support
  • Performance Features
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol): SIP is an application layer signalling protocol, developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), that enables the creation, modification, and termination of sessions that are independent of the underlying transport protocols and session type being established.
Like HTTP, SIP is a client-server protocol, in which requests are issued by the clients and responses are managed by the servers. Clients and servers exchange messages that contain the information required for establishing a session.
Access control: TCP wrappers
TCP Wrapper provides enhanced security for services under the control of the internet services daemon inetd. TCP Wrapper uses access control files to determine if users can gain access to certain services.
Performance acceleration
  • Offload technology: TCP Segmentation Offload (TSO): TSO is an enhancement to ethernet drivers for reducing CPU utilisation on the system during data transmission, thus boosting overall application performance. It is particularly suited for traffic involving the transfer of large amounts of data, as in storage area networks. TSO is available on TOUR 2.0.
  • Network Server Accelerator: The HP-UX 11i Network Server Accelerator for HTTP (NSA HTTP) is a networking feature that improves Web server performance by maintaining an in-kernel cache of recently accessed Web pages.

At a Glance

Naming and addressing
DHCPv6 conforms to the following IETF standards:
  • RFC 3315 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6))
  • RFC 3646 (DNS Configuration options for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6))
  • RFC 3319 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv6) Options for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Servers)
  • RFC 3736 (Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Service for IPv6)

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Business benefits

The Internet has changed the world. Version 4 of the Internet Protocol (IPv4), designed more than 30 years ago, has been stretched beyond its limits in scalability, security, and manageability. IPv6 was specifically designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to address these issues and offer:
  • Extended address space: IP address size increased from 32 bits to 128 bits, providing virtually unlimited addresses
  • End-to-end encryption at the network layer for data confidentiality
  • Auto-configuration and quality of service support for improved manageability
Across industries, professionals and knowledge workers perform their work away from their desks more than half the time. To ensure optimal productivity, you need to provide IT services that follow the users. A Mobile IT Infrastructure needs to address the following issues.
  • Identification: how to identify a mobile device in a global context
  • Transport: how to track and route services to a mobile device
  • Security: how to ensure the secure delivery of services to a mobile device
The in-depth technical expertise, know-how, and insight HP-UX networking engineers are encapsulated in the implementation of the HP-UX 11i Mobility Solutions.
HP-UX 11i Mobile IPv6, designed for an IPv6 network infrastructure, consists of two Mobile IPv6 components: Home Agent and Correspondent Node.
  • The Home Agent is for those customers who need to provide mobility service to Mobile Nodes that administratively belong to them (e.g. service providers).
  • The Correspondent Node is for any IPv6 box owner who wants to provide MIPv6’s route optimisation support to Mobile Nodes that will directly communicate to the IPv6 box bypassing the Home Agent.
Benefits of HP-UX Mobile IPv6:
  • Designed for Multi-Processor scaling
  • Uses IPSec for message authentication and required end-to-end security for user data
  • Extensive inter-operability testing and multi-vendor verification at TAHI project forums and Connectathon bake-offs
  • Intuitive, easy to use configuration and administration tools which includes HP’s nettl tracing tool for Mobile IPv6 packet tracing
  • Mobile IPv6 product can be obtained through HP’ Software depot

Technology advantages

As leader in the international IPv6 community, HP through HP-UX 11i delivers the best implementation of IPv6 in the industry featuring the latest capabilities, the most thorough transition support for a smooth evolution, and a completeness of solution unmatched by others.
IP v6 Infrastructure
The HP-UX 11i Mobile IPv6 design and implementation takes advantage of the following IPv6 features.
  • A large IP address space to eliminate the need for private addresses and network address translation
  • Stateless autoconfiguration for allocating a home address
  • Authentication Header and Encapsulated Security Payload IPv6 extension for security
  • IPv6 Routing header for better performance and less overhead

How it works

Some of the IPv6 features available with HP-UX 11i are:
  • Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD): MLD (specified in RFC 2710) is a sub-protocol of ICMPv6. MLD is automatically enabled when an IPv6 interface is initialised. This RFC specifies a protocol that an IPv6 router uses to detect multicast listeners (nodes interested in receiving multicast packets) on its directly attached links. The Management Information Base (MIB) for MLD (defined in RFC 3019) is also supported.
  • Router Advertisement functionality (specified in RFC 2461) is implemented with a new daemon, rtradvd. The rtradvd daemon listens for Router Solicitation and sends Router Advertisement messages on-demand or periodically.
  • IPv6 over FDDI Link Support.
New IPv6 Transition Mechanisms Enhancements:
  • RFC 2473 - Packet Tunneling in IPv6
  • RFC 2893 - Transition Mechanisms for IPv4 Hosts and Routers
  • RFC 3056 - Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds
The following are key features of HP-UX 11i IPv6:
  • Smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6 Dual stacks facilitate IPv6 deployment, allowing existing applications to coexist on both IPv4 and IPv6 networks. Application modification is required only when the application needs to take advantage of the features of IPv6.
  • Plug-and-Play address auto-configuration A "link local" IP address is automatically configured to allow immediate communication with directly connected hosts, printers, or other devices.
  • Security at the IP layer IPv6 has built-in IP security extensions for authentication, data integrity, and data confidentiality — ensured by a standard header extension, for end-to-end encryption at the network layer.
  • Quality-of-service support IPv6 incorporates built in controls that allow network traffic to be prioritised and reserved.
  • Mobility support Auto-configuration, routing headers, destination options, anycast address, encapsulation, security, and flow label management all contribute to IPv6's natural mobility support.
  • Links supported HP-UX 11i IPv6 runs over Ethernet, FDDI, Infiniband and more links.

At a Glance

Supported RFCs include:
  • RFC 1981 - IPv6 PMTU Discovery
  • RFC 2373 - IPv6 Addressing Support
  • RFC 2374 - IPv6 Aggregatable Global Unicast Address Format
  • RFC 2375 - IPv6 Multicast Address
  • RFC 2452 - IPv6 MIB for TCP
  • RFC 2460 - IPv6 Specification
  • RFC 2461 - IPv6 Neighbor discovery
  • RFC 2462 - Stateless Autoconfiguration
  • RFC 2463 - ICMPv6 Specification
  • RFC 2464 - Transmission of IPv6 packets over Ethernet Networks
  • RFC 2465 - MIB for IPv6: Textual Conventions
  • RFC 2466 - MIB for IPv6 ICMPv6 Group
  • RFC 2473 - Generic Packet Tunneling in IPv6 RFC 2893 - Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts (Automatic and Configured Tunnels)
  • RFC 3056 - Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds
  • RFC 3376 - Internet Group Management Protocol Version 3 (IGMPv3)
  • RFC 3484 - Default Address Selection for IP Version 6 • RFC 3810 - Multicast Listener Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2)
  • RFC 4193 - Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses
  • RFC 4213 - Basic Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers
  • RFC 4291 - IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture
  • RFC 4443 - Internet Control Message Protocol for
  •  IPv6 (ICMPv6) IPv6 over VLAN
  • Ability to Disable Autoconfiguration Based on Router Advertisements
  • IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stack
  • RFC 3493 - Basic Socket Interface Extensions for IPv6
  • RFC 3542 - Advanced Socket APIs for IPv6
  • RFC 3678 - Socket Interface Extensions for Multicast Source Filters
  • RFC 4584 - Extension to Socket API for Mobile IPv6
HP-UX 11i has optimised their TCP layer to maximise wireless traffic throughput. Numerous IETF standards and features were added to HP-UX 11i's transport stack such as:
  • RFC 1191 - Path MTU Discovery
  • RFC 1323 - TCP Extensions for High Performance
  • RFC 2018 - TCP Selective Acknowledgement Options
  • RFC 2414 - Increasing TCP’s Initial Window
  • RFC 2581 - TCP Congestion Control
  • RFC 3042 - Enhancing TCP’s Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit
  • Support of larger-than-default IP MTU size
  • Smoothed RTO algorithm
HP-UX Mobile IPv6 is based on the following IETF Standards:
  • RFC 3775: Mobility Support in IPv6
  • RFC 3776: Using IPSec to Protect Mobile IPv6 Signaling Between Mobile Nodes and Home Agents

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The digital media revolution is transforming the enterprise network infrastructure. New rich media applications impose stringent performance and scalability requirements on the infrastructure.
HP-UX 11i provides not only a robust and scalable platform for applications but also a set of capabilities specifically designed and optimised for the delivery of rich digital media.

How it works

Real Time Transfer Protocol (RTP)
Real Time Transfer Protocol (RTP) is a transport protocol that provides end-to-end network transport functions for applications transmitting data with real-time properties, such as interactive audio and video.
RTP consists of Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP), a closely linked protocol, that provides a mechanism for reporting feedback on the transmitted real-time data.
Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)
Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) controls the transfer of real-time media data and serves as a network-remote-control for multimedia sessions.
Session Description Protocol (SDP)
Session Description Protocol (SDP) describes the general real-time multimedia sessions.

At a Glance

MSP includes the following libraries:
  • librtp.sl - RTP library
  • librtsp.sl - RTSP library
  • ibsdp.sl - SDP library

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